Sandwich a Side of Motivation: An Investigation of the Effects of the Feedback Sandwich Method on Motivation

Conference: The IAFOR International Conference on Education in Hawaii (IICE2022)
Title: Sandwich a Side of Motivation: An Investigation of the Effects of the Feedback Sandwich Method on Motivation
Stream: Mind, Brain & Psychology: Human Emotional & Cognitive Development & Outcomes within Educational Contexts
Presentation Type: Virtual Presentation
Emily Dolan, Slippery Rock University, United States
Brittany Fleming, Slippery Rock University, United States
David Keppel, Slippery Rock University, United States
Jessica Covert, Singapore Institute of Management, Singapore


The "feedback sandwich" method involves placing corrective feedback between two positive statements. Although it has been argued that this method is an effective means of delivering feedback to students because it seemingly makes constructive feedback more pleasant (e.g., Dohrenwent, 2002), there exists limited empirical research to support this claim. Receiving feedback from instructors has implications for a host of perceptual and behavioral variables for students. The limited body of empirical research on the feedback sandwich method provides evidence that while this method is associated with perceived usefulness and effectiveness (e.g., Davies & Jacobs, 1985), its use may not influence subsequent performance (Prochazaka et al., 2020). Few studies have examined all potential combinations of sequencing. In addition, no studies to date have looked at the effects of the feedback sandwich method on motivation. By examining the effects of sequencing on motivation, potential mediators in the feedback-performance may begin to be elucidated. The implications of such findings would likely have important theoretical and applied implications. This study examines the effects of feedback sequencing on motivation. To account for all combinations of sequencing, 132 participants were assigned to one of seven feedback conditions. After reviewing their feedback, participants reported their levels of motivation in the course. Data have been collected and the authors are currently in the process of cleaning and analyzing the data. Results will be discussed in light of their implications for feedback sequencing and the potential mechanisms explaining the effectiveness of feedback sequencing will be discussed.

Virtual Presentation

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