Classification and Effective Utilization of Feedback

Conference: The IAFOR International Conference on Education in Hawaii (IICE2022)
Title: Classification and Effective Utilization of Feedback
Stream: Learning Experiences, Student Learning & Learner Diversity
Presentation Type: Virtual Presentation
Yumi Ishige, Otemae University, Japan
Yoshiko Goda, Kumamoto University, Japan
Sae Yamamoto, Teikyo Heisei University, Japan


The research aims to establish a system by which students can provide and receive feedback and utilize it effectively. As defined by Hattie and Timperley (2007, p. 102), feedback relates to actions or “information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher, peer, book, parent, [internet,] experience) regarding aspects of one’s performance or understanding.” This understanding of the feedback is classified into three types: feed up (setting a goal and comments related to the goal), feed back (confirmation of a current status), and feed forward (comments on the subsequent step). Each type is then divided into four levels of feedback regarding the task (suggestions for the various aspects of the issue), the processing of the task (suggestions for the process of problem-solving), self-regulation (suggestions related to self-evaluation and self-efficacy), and the self (suggestions not about the subject itself but regarding the person). It is important for students to recognize the type and level of feedback given in order to use it effectively. Based on the abovementioned concepts, I created a "feedback sheet" to categorize feedback according to its type. At this stage, I asked several university students to join the research study. The procedure was as follows: (1) set a goal (feed up), (2) do a presentation related to the students’ research and obtain feedback from their classmates, (3) use the sheet to organize the feedback, and (4) reflect on the feedback given. In this research, I will examine the method and effectiveness of the sheet.

Virtual Presentation

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