Cause-and-Effect Analysis of Music Literacy Education in South African Secondary Schools

Conference: The European Conference on Arts & Humanities (ECAH2022)
Title: Cause-and-Effect Analysis of Music Literacy Education in South African Secondary Schools
Stream: Arts - Teaching and Learning the Arts
Presentation Type: Oral Presentation
Ronella van Rensburg, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Ronél de Villiers, University of Pretoria, South Africa


In this research the Ishikawa Cause-and-Effect Diagram (CED), a critical analysis tool used in root-cause studies, is adapted and applied as a theoretical framework for the systematic analysis of Music Literacy (MusLit) education in South African secondary schools. The effective teaching and learning of MusLit is influenced by interrelated variables playing juxtaposal roles. These variables have been investigated and identified by making extensive use of previous research, in the form of scholarly documents, journals and articles. ATLAS.ti, which is purpose-built qualitative research software, was used for the classifying, sorting and arranging of data, as well as the coding and sub-coding of themes, in this case, the previously known and identified variables. The coded and sub-coded variables include available, but sometimes inadequate resources in the school education system, the individual circumstances of teachers and learners as well as the ever-changing environments in schools – (both government and privately owned). The first research question: “Which variables have an impact on the effective teaching and learning of MusLit in South African Secondary Schools?” is therefore answered by the comprehensive content analysis of previous scholarly research. The list of the found coded and sub-coded variables are extensive, scrambled and confusing. The evident question that follows: “How can we systematically organise and visualise these variables in a logical and understandable diagram?” is answered by the development of the utilisation of the adapted Ishikawa CED. The result of this study is a qualitative visualisation of the interdependent variables impacting on effective MusLit education.

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