Title: Mainstreaming Indigenous Knowledge in Formal Learning: The Case of Pamulaan Center for Indigenous Peoples’ Education in the Philippines
Stream: Educational Policy, Leadership, Management & Administration
Presentation Type: Live-Stream Presentation
Giselle Miole, Waseda University Graduate School of Asia Pacific Studies, Japan
Among the current debates is how schools achieve inclusive education and at the same time provide special needs to concerned learners such as the people with disabilities, and the indigenous peoples to combat against alienation and discrimination in schools. The Philippine government enacted the Integrated History Act of 2016, a law that integrates Muslim and indigenous peoples’ studies in the Philippine basic education curricula; and the issuance of Memorandum Order No. 2-2019, integrating indigenous knowledge in formal higher education. This study analyzes how the Philippines, having a comprehensive profile of national minorities consisting of Muslims and indigenous peoples, changed its policy promoting indigenous knowledge in national higher education curricula, and identifying international and domestic drivers that led to the educational reform. A series of systematic reviews of policy documents and previous studies, policy formulation analysis using the Actor-Centered Institutionalism framework, and in-depth online interviews were conducted for the study. It is revealed that the rising awareness and relevance of indigenous peoples’ rights agenda around the world, fulfilling global commitments on Education for All, and the role of indigenous people’s initiatives via mass protests, and emerging political participation of indigenous citizens in key areas of the government played a huge role in heightening the attention of the Philippine government to consider modifying the country’s national curricula by adopting culture-based learning curricula of existing indigenous schools.
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